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This paper is based on Blindenbacher, Raoul, and B. Nashat (Collaborator): 2010.

The Black Box of Governmental Learning. The Learning Spiral – A Concept to Organize Learning in Governments. Washington DC: World Bank, available for download at <>

Dr. Raoul Blindenbacher has a PHD from the University of Zürich and is currently a Senior Fellow at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in

Geneva and an Advisor to the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Bidjan Nashat is a Strategy Officer at the World Bank’s Independent Evaluation Group

in Washington DC. The authors would like to thank Heather Dittbrenner, Publishing Associate, (IEGCS) for editing and Hans-Martin Boehmer, Senior Manager, IEGCS, and

Ali Khadr, Senior Manager, Country, Corporate & Global Evaluations (IEGCC) for their overall guidance. These are the views of the authors and should not be attributed to the

World Bank or any affiliated organization.